Those of us who are old enough can remember a day when software was delivered primarily by physical media. The spread of broadband internet and smartphones has led us to the age of the web service—software hosted in the cloud accessed by user clients such as browsers and apps.
Not too long ago, web applications were run directly on physical machines in private data centers. For ease of management, these applications were usually monolithic—a single large server would contain all of the back-end code and database. Now, web hosting services like Amazon and the spread of hypervisor technology have changed all of that. Thanks to Amazon Web Services (AWS) and tools like VirtualBox, it has become easy to package an entire OS in a single file.
Using services like EC2, it has become easy to package machine images and string together sets of virtual servers. Along came the microservices paradigm—an approach to software architecture wherein large monolithic apps are broken up into smaller focused services that do one thing well. In general, this approach allows for easier scaling and feature development as bottlenecks are quicker to find and system changes easier to isolate.
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